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❶She regularly writes articles, conducts workshops and lectures on various aspects of manuscript preparation and biomedical journal editorial policies.

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Introduction
Observations on life and writing from a former ghostwriter.
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Not only can I turn a simple sentence into something intriguing by using powerful and exciting words, but I can make the reader anxious to turn to More. I agree with your terms and conditions. My charge is most affordable and negotiable. I am a highly experienced, reliable and effective content writer. I promise best quality contents within the stipulated deadline. Hi, I read your project and am interested in ghostwriting for you; this sounds intriguing! I have several successful books on the market, both as a ghostwriter and under my pen name.

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I have reviewed your project details, and am excited to offer a bid. This project fits my skills perfectly! I am a writer myself, having many years of experience in ghostwriting, as well as publishing my own works under my pen name. Hi, My proposal is in regards to writing stories, articles.

My relationship will provide the More. Drop me a message to discuss the project in detail I will be waiting for your response. By this system the specific contribution made by every person associated with the publication is listed. This should reveal who wrote the paper. Unfortunately, although the system is recommended by the ICMJE, it has only been implemented by some large journals.

Authors get more than an honorarium from selling their name. They accumulate articles on their CVs without effort, gaining career advancement and a reputation as an opinion leader, which in turn attracts lavish invitations — all expenses paid — to speak at congresses in exotic locations. A suggestion has been made to name and shame authors who plagiarise Chalmers, , which could be extended to authors who fail to acknowledge writers. But editors might be reluctant to do this. There seems to be a protectionist attitude towards authors who are members of the same community as journal editors, a fear that innocent scientists or physicians may have their careers ruined or an anxiety about defending a libel action.

When editors detect ghost written manuscripts, their actions should involve both the submitting authors and commercial participants if they are involved. Several actions are possible:. The statement was prompted by a WAME Listserve discussion initiated by the editor of the Journal of General Internal Medicine when Adriane Fugh-Berman reported that a manuscript she had been sent by the journal to review was identical to the one she had previously been asked to author Fugh-Berman, The name of the replacement author was never published on the Listserve or elsewhere.

Hence other journal editors have been deprived of the opportunity of caution with this author, who would seem to have little to fear. In a recent article Moffatt and Elliott ask whether the ethical problems presented by ghost-written articles would be solved if medical writers were acknowledged as authors.

To be acknowledged as authors, medical writers would of course need to satisfy the current ICMJE authorship provisions as stated above. They suggest that university institutions police their faculty members. I fear this is likely to be met with issues similar to those mentioned above when asking journal editors to do the task, but more weight might be added by their further suggestion of also placing responsibility with a government institution e. Less certain is that their suggestion of joining ghost-writers and authors in actions taken against pharmaceutical companies such as Motus vs Pfizer would act as a great deterrent.

Such actions are relatively rare and execution for payment of damages and costs is likely to be pursued against the more financially viable defendants. Elise Langdon-Neuner BSc has a background in science, law and biomedical publication. She was a litigation partner in a London firm of solicitors for a number of years. After moving to Austria she became managing editor of Diabetologia, the largest European diabetes medical journal.

In she launched a new Elsevier journal and managed the journal through its teething years. Currently she is a senior manager at Baxter BioScience in Vienna, where her work includes editing manuscripts prepared by in-house research scientists. She regularly writes articles, conducts workshops and lectures on various aspects of manuscript preparation and biomedical journal editorial policies. Her main interests are ethics in scientific publication and the future of scientific communication.

Elise Langdon-Neuner is a medical writer in a basic research department at a pharmaceutical company editing drafts prepared by researchers. She has also worked as a managing editor for medical journals. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Journal List Mens Sana Monogr v. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Any assistance an author receives with writing a scientific article that is not acknowledged in the article is described as ghost-writing. Introduction Medical ghost-writing is a new term, different from the ghost-writing of autobiographies, fiction and political speeches.

Concise Oxford Dictionary, Merriam-Webster Dictionary define a ghost-writer as a person employed to write material for another person, who is named as author: The Importance of Authorship Authorship pinpoints an accountable person. WAME, however, recommends journals make it clear that medical writers can be legitimate contributors: The first is that authors are embarrassed to admit to having received assistance.

They ask how authors, who are too busy or whose writing skills are so poor that they need help, can guarantee the quality of their research. The second reason is ignorance of the need to disclose. The third is a concern that journals are less willing to accept the article for publication Wilde, This concern is legitimate Griffin-Sobel, Among others, the American Journal of Medicine has said that they reject papers, which have too much company-speak Larkin, The fourth reason for non-disclosure is to stealthily market drugs.

Healy and Cattell summed up the scenario of articles perceived as written by opinion-leaders with minimal company representation and non-declaration of other non-academic inputs increasing the likelihood that the articles will be influential with prescribers and purchasers. We know that readers are sceptical of articles with declared pharmaceutical industry involvement Chaudhry et al.

Examples of Ghost-writing in the Literature Secrecy is always suspect. The Attitude Towards Who Writes the First Draft If a person employed by a commercial enterprise or organisation with an agenda to promote writes the first draft, the potential for bias is increased.

Problems with Acknowledgement Although medical writers are not ghost-writers if they are acknowledged, acknowledgement alone does not satisfy current concerns. The name of the person who provided writing assistance. If a named author prepared the first draft, the name and funding source of the person who provided writing assistance, if any. Action to Ensure Acknowledgement Guidelines increase awareness. Several actions are possible: Conclusions Acknowledgement is necessary to exorcise ghosts.

Clear guidance needs to be given on the form of the acknowledgement and an answer should be found for when medical writers are not prepared to give permission for their acknowledgement because unacceptable changes have subsequently been made to their work. All parties concerned need to actively support transparency: The popular press has an important role in raising end consumer and political momentum. Patient groups that will grow with the increase in average age of Western populations could wield more influence in demanding ethics in the dissemination of medical research information.

Questions That This Paper Raises Do medical writers have a legitimate task to perform in compiling data and bringing research to publication? Should accountability be strictly confined to those who genuinely had access to raw data and must they always be authors?

Is ghost-writing merely a beacon of the commercialisation of medicine against which patients have no voice? Issues for Further Deliberation The interconnections between authors, journals and the pharmaceutical industry, a major financer of research, are very strong. Added to which the pharmaceutical industry has a powerful political lobby, especially is the USA. The people who are disadvantaged by unethical dissemination of scientific information are patients and the taxpayer - all of us.

Medical writers, perhaps as a proxy for their employers, rather than academic and physician authors have been the focus of attack for ghost-writing but medical writers do have a task to perform compiling data and bringing research to publication. Their associations encourage ethical practices in this task. Whether medical writers should be preparing the first drafts of opinion pieces needs careful thought.

Authors could still be defined as those who made substantial intellectual as well as research contributions to the work. Authors can only be accountable for the raw data they have had access to. Either raw data needs to be made available for public scrutiny or those who do have access to the raw data must be made personally accountable.

Ghost-writing is a side product of the commercialisation of medicine. Medical writers are earning a living. Pharmaceutical companies have a duty to their shareholders to make a profit and some doctors and scientists are taking advantage of a windfall. Others have commendably resisted the temptation. Open in a separate window. Conflict of Interest Elise Langdon-Neuner is a medical writer in a basic research department at a pharmaceutical company editing drafts prepared by researchers.

The vexed question of authorship: Role of systematic reviews in detecting plagiarism: Does declaration of competing interests affect reader perceptions?

Ghostwriters need to be more visible. A Authorship and Contributorship. Writing and Editing for Biomedical Publication. Prevalence of articles with honorary authors and ghost authors in peer-reviewed medical journals. J Gen Intern Med. AMWA position statement on the contributions of medical writers to scientific publications. Hamilton CW, Jacobs A. Healy D, Cattell D. Today, perhaps, that conventional wisdom has rarely had more meaning.

To a degree that might astonish the reading public, a significant percentage of any current bestseller list will not have been written by the authors whose names appear on the jackets. Among the many mysteries of the British book world, none is quite so opaque as the life of the ghostwriter, the invisible man or woman who fulfils the vanity of those who want their name on the cover of a book but who, for the life of them, cannot write.

You may not know it, but literary ghosts are everywhere. In this golden age of reading, publishers desperate for copper-bottomed commercial titles in bestselling genres — misery memoir, sporting lives and celebrity autobiography — will not hesitate to sign up surrogate authors.

Sometimes, there is no deception. Katie Price aka Jordan boasts that she does not do her own typing, and relied on Rebecca Farnworth to launch her career as a novelist with Angel. Further down the food chain, even the infuriating meerkat from the comparethemarket. Ghostwriting in the English-speaking world is big business. Walsh not only commissioned his ghosts, he imposed a strict code of conduct on their pallid lives.

The acknowledgments page of many ghosted books will thank partners, children, even family pets, before making a discreet, sometimes grudging, nod to the invisible man or woman who quarried the angel from the marble. Alternatively, and more transparently, the book will be credited "as told to", or "written with", or "edited by".

Those innocuous phrases often mask a world of private pain: As with any book, the struggles of the ghosted book are all to do with love and money. Some ghosts, who generally speak on conditions of anonymity, report that the subject they approach with utter dread is the fragile personality with pretensions to authorship. Who, after all, is not vulnerable to the tug of amour-propre?

The ghost, who starts out as a hybrid of therapist, muse and friend, enters a psychological minefield. Accordingly, the ghost is advised never to forget that, at the end of the day, he or she ranks somewhere between a valet and a cleaner.

I recall, some years ago, a female pop star attending a book trade prize-giving for which her ghosted bestselling memoir had been shortlisted.

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A ghostwriter is hired to write literary or journalistic works, speeches, or other texts that are officially credited to another person as the blackwoman.gqities, executives, participants in timely news stories, and political leaders often hire ghostwriters to draft or edit autobiographies, memoirs, magazine articles, or other written blackwoman.gq music, .

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Donald Trump’s Ghostwriter Tells All Schwartz thought about publishing an article describing his reservations about Trump, but he hesitated, knowing that, since he’d cashed in on the.

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I’ve been ghost writing for many years – the least I have ever been paid for an article is $ and that was years ago. I, too, struggle with a twinge of jealousy that others are getting credit, but money is money. Article Ghostwriter for Hire The online business is a tough and competitive market. There are virtually millions of online businesses. It requires you to constantly have fresh and new information. You must come up with ways of attracting and keeping users to your website. You can hire a professional article ghostwriter as an effective way.

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